A single component cause is rarely a sufficient cause by itself. Agent, host, and environmental factors interrelate in a variety of complex ways to produce disease. A sourcebook of current theory, research, and therapy pp.
Integrating spirituality into mental health care. Spiritual practice and mental care for HIV-positive people are beneficial to relax sympathetic nervous system and enhance immune function Rabin Over time, the concept of agent has been broadened to include chemical and physical causes of disease or injury.
Stigma, discrimination, misconception, local social and cultural taboos also contribute to increasing number of HIV infections in developing countries where people do not talk about them or people are not educated about them.
According to the study, these psychological symptoms among HIV-positive people are associated with a decline in CD4 cell count Dalmida, Community health care providers suggest voluntary counseling and testing for HIV treatment programs as good strategies.
Early symptoms of HIV infection are fever, fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, diarrhea, weight loss, cough, headache, blurred and distorted vision, skin rashes or bumps, and shortness of breath Moss, When a person has lower number of CD4 cells in the blood than normal, he or she is susceptible to illnesses because the person lost ability to fight infection.
Perlman EdsLoneliness: Responsibility of secondary prevention: Issues in Mental health nursing. For example, the agent factor is the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus that is transmitted directly through infected blood transfusion, sharing infected needles and syringes, and breast feeding from infected mother or indirectly through broken skin by unsafe and unprotected sexual contact.
Nurses are responsible for educating people in the community about the causes and spread of the virus. Retrieved on June 5, from GCU library.
Note that public health action does not depend on the identification of every component cause. Environment refers to extrinsic factors that affect the agent and the opportunity for exposure. Am J Epidemiol ; Opportunities for exposure are often influenced by behaviors such as sexual practices, hygiene, and other personal choices as well as by age and sex.
Among the simplest of these is the epidemiologic triad or triangle, the traditional model for infectious disease. Host susceptibility and other host factors also may play a role. One such model was proposed by Rothman inand has come to be known as the Causal Pies.
However, combination of antiretroviral cost a lot and are not available in poor countries. Retrieved from GCU library. Pneumocystis carinii is an organism that harmlessly colonizes the respiratory tract of some healthy persons, but can cause potentially lethal pneumonia in persons whose immune systems have been weakened by human immunodeficiency virus HIV.
Causation A number of models of disease causation have been proposed. For each of the following risk factors and health outcomes, identify whether they are necessary causes, sufficient causes, or component causes.
People who are diagnosed as HIV-negative are susceptible hosts who can be infected by people who are diagnosed HIV-positive if they have unsafe sexual activity or receive unsafe health care.
The host factors are people.Concepts of Epidemiology(HIV) Grand Canyon University Concept in Community and Public Health NRS HIV. Communicable diseases are global health issues nowadays as the world become globalized by increasing international travel and business.
Section 8: Concepts of Disease Occurrence. A critical premise of epidemiology is that disease and other health events do not occur randomly in a population, but are more likely to occur in some members of the population than others because of risk factors that may not be distributed randomly in the population.
Concepts of Epidemiology (HIV) Mun Kang Grand Canyon University Concept in Community and Public Health NRS V Colleen Darrow June 08, HIV Communicable diseases are global health issues nowadays as the world become globalized by increasing international travel and business.
Increasing awareness of HIV status represents the first step in improving the HIV care cascade, also called the HIV care continuum, which is a model for identifying issues and opportunities related to the delivery of HIV services to people living with HIV in the United States.
HIV Epidemiology John Lamb Grand Canyon University Concepts in Community and Public Health NRSV June 3, HIV Epidemiology The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that is similar to other types of viruses, such as the common cold or the influenza virus, but there is one aspect that is very different.
Core Concepts; % Topic 2 Newly Diagnosed with HIV Infection test yourself using the Epidemiology of HIV Question Bank which contains interactive board-review style questions and offers more CME Discuss the impact of racial/ethnic disparities and social determinants on HIV epidemiology; Identify populations in the United States at.Download